The possibility of international labor migration is created by national differences in income, in the standard of living. The need for resettlement movements of hired labor from country to country is dictated by the uneven formation of relative overpopulation in the international arena. The labor force is moving from countries rich in labor resources to countries richer in capital. More than half of international migrants come from developing countries, two-thirds of them are in industrialized countries. The influx of new masses of migrants to these countries is associated with qualitative imbalances in their labor markets.
The flows of labor migration have undergone certain changes for a long time. In the last century, international migration was directed mainly to the capital-poor colonies, primarily to North America and Australia. Mass immigration in certain regions of the world led to the emergence and development of resettlement societies there, which gave impetus to the development of the world economic system. The movement of immigrants, the means of production and money-capital contributed to education in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries. groups of resettled states, the main directions of social development were determined by European powers. During this period, there were also significant population movements from China and India, mainly to Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean.
In the second half of the last century, new centers of attraction for immigrants were formed. Emigration began to go from less developed to more developed countries. Along with the USA, a powerful center of attraction has developed in Western Europe, as a result, from the supplier of emigrants, it has become a center of attraction for the workforce. The largest host countries are the USA and Germany (over 400 thousand people a year).
In the mid-1970s, a large immigration center was established in the Persian Gulf region, and in the early 1990s foreigners accounted for 70% of the labor force. A peculiar center for the attraction of immigrants, nationalistic in nature, was Israel, established in 1947. Its population increased by 2/3 due to migration flows and, to a large extent (by 1/3), at the expense of immigrants from the Soviet Union. In Latin America, the centers of attraction of labor were Argentina, Brazil and Venezuela with the number of immigrants from 5 to 8 million people. In Africa, the centers of attraction of labor were South Africa and Cote d’Ivoire.
The main suppliers of labor in Asia were India, Pakistan, the Philippines, Malaysia; in the Middle East – Lebanon, Jordan, Turkey; in Africa – Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Ghana, Mali, Chad, Guinea, Mozambique; in North America – Mexico; in Europe – Poland. In the 1990s, the countries of Southern Europe – Greece, Italy, Spain – were transformed from net migration countries to net immigration countries.