Industry and Energy of Canada.
Manufacturing industry. Ontario and Quebec produce more than 75% of all industrial products manufactured in Canada, and Toronto and Montreal are the main centers of the manufacturing industry in the country. Cars, trucks, auto and aircraft parts are the main products manufactured in Canada and are included in the calculation of the gross market value of manufactured products; followed by the food industry. The gross market value of a product is the difference between the market value of the initial material used to manufacture the product and the market value of the resulting processed product. In Canada, there are no national enterprises for the production of cars or trucks. Instead, many American and Japanese automotive companies manufacture their cars in Canada (almost all the factories are located in Ontario, with the exception of the three Swedish buses Volvo and the American Paccar in Quebec). Although some of the machines manufactured in the country are destined for the Canadian market, most of them are still in the US. On the other hand, Canada is the world leader in aircraft manufacturing and the production of subway trains thanks to Bombardier Inc. Most of the Bombardier plants are located in the Montreal metropolitan area. Other important manufacturing sectors in Canada are the petrochemical, metallurgical and electronic telecommunications industries.
Other indicators of the Canadian economy.
Mining industry. Currently, oil is Canada’s most important natural resource. Canada is one of the largest producers of aluminum, copper, iron, nickel, gold, uranium and zinc. In Ontario, there are large reserves of aluminum, copper, nickel, silver, titanium and zinc. Ontario Province is the national leader in mining and the world’s largest supplier of nickel. In Quebec, there are large deposits of iron, zinc and asbestos. The largest producer of iron in Canada is Newfoundland and Labrador. British Columbia is the largest copper producer in the country, and New Brunswick is zinc. The reserves of Saskatchewan uranium are the largest in the world. The diversity and non-availability of minerals in Canada make it one of the world’s largest exporters of mining products. However, two of the most important mineral resources are oil and natural gas. The province of Alberta has significant reserves of these natural resources and is the national leader in their extraction. Alberta also has huge reserves of bitumen in the form of bituminous sands. Bitumen can be used for processing in oil in conditions of rising oil prices. The jump in prices since 2006 has generated a significant increase in investment and production of “bituminous oil.” In the future, if prices remain at the same level or continue to grow, Canada could easily become one of the largest oil suppliers in the world. Canada’s construction industry is primarily concentrated in the main cities of the country, where many immigrants settle daily. These are the cities of Calgary, Edmonton, Montreal and especially Toronto. This industry is very developed in Toronto, where many buildings and skyscrapers are in the process of construction or design. Toronto – the second in the world city on the activity of building skyscrapers, slightly inferior to this Shanghai. Power engineering in Canada. Canada is one of the world’s largest energy consumers per capita, primarily because of its industrialized economy and its harsh climate in the winter. Canada has large sources of renewable energy, such as numerous large rivers and lakes, strong permanent winds in the central and eastern regions, the highest sea tides in the Bay of Fundy in Nova Scotia. The country is also allocated for non-renewable energy reserves. It owns the world’s largest uranium reserves in Saskatchewan and large reserves of oil and natural gas in Alberta. The last province also has the world’s largest reserves of bituminous sand. More than 60% of electricity consumed in the country is produced by hydroelectric power stations, 18% by nuclear power plants, 12% by thermal power stations operating on natural gas, 8% by coal-fired power plants and 2% by other energy sources. All provinces of Canada, except Prince Edward Island, produce electricity with a surplus (especially Quebec), which is exported to the United States. Canada belongs to a few developed countries that export energy abroad. Electricity exports to the US are an important source of revenue for Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador. Since 2007, in the eastern provinces, the construction of wind power stations has been expanding, but the amount of energy produced by them remains insignificant.
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