48. Russia’s policy towards the Crimean Khanate in xviiIv.
Analyzing Russia’s foreign policy toward the Crimea in the 18th century, it should be noted that historiography has long dominated tendentious approaches to the study of this problem, which has not been thoroughly and comprehensively studied. It was viewed either as an integral part of the general history of Russia, or through the prism of the interests of the Russian Empire. The first thing Peter did was change the direction of the main attack. The traditional Crimean direction was replaced by the Turkish one. Peter was the first of the Russian rulers to conclude that it was necessary to fight with Turkey in order to defeat the Crimea. True, Peter was interested in the Crimea not in itself, but only as a necessary condition for the possibility to gain access to the sea, to acquire harbors and fortresses, to build a fleet. Analyzing the policy of Peter I, NN Molchanov at the same time points out that before Peter, Russia’s policy in the south was characterized by passivity and solved purely defensive tasks. There were no real strategic plans for the long run. It is necessary to agree with the author of this statement that Peter I really extraordinarily activated the southern policy of Russia. The government of Catherine Petrovna began to pursue a more flexible policy toward the Crimea. It consisted in establishing direct contacts with the Crimea, and on an entirely different basis. after the end of the war with Turkey and the conclusion of the Kuchyuk-Kainargi peace treaty, the government of Catherine II took the policy of resolving the Black Sea problem by peaceful means. Russia seeks to show that its interests are now inextricably linked with the Crimea. The desire to solve all issues peacefully derives from Russia’s position on the conclusion of the Ainaly-Kavak Convention, Catherine II did not believe in the possibility of a peace agreement with Turkey.
49. Emigration of the Crimean Tatars to Turkey at the end of the XVIII beginning. XX century.
The conquest of the Khanate by Russian troops in the 18th century marked the beginning of the colonization of the Crimea and the migration of large groups of the Tatar population from Crimea to Turkey. The Crimean Khanate ceased to exist in 1783, becoming part of the Russian Empire under the name of the Taurian Gubernia (Tauric Chersonesos). At that time on the peninsula there were about 1530 mosques, dozens of madrassas and teka. At the end of the 18th century, Crimean Tatars made up the majority of the population of the Crimea – 350-400 thousand people, but as a result of two migrations to Turkey in the 1790s (not less than 100 thousand people) and 1850-60’s. (up to 150 thousand) were a minority. The following waves of emigration of the Tatars to Turkey fell on 1874-75; then – at the beginning of the 1890s (up to 18 thousand) and in 1902-03. Actually by the beginning of the 20th century. most of the Crimean Tatars were outside their historical homeland. In the early 60’s Gt. XIX century. The second emigration of the Tatars to Turkey began, which took on a very large scale. According to official data, during the 1860-1862 gg. 131 thousand Tatars left the Crimea. One of the reasons for the emigration of the Tatars was the deforestation of the Tatar peasants, which was conducted by both Russian and Tatar landowners with the active assistance of tsarist officials. As a result, most of the Tatar peasants were deprived of land and forced to live on landed estates, serving various duties for the use of land. During the seizure of peasant lands, the Russian and Tatar landowners widely used the fact that the Tatar peasants did not have documents confirming their right to land. Explaining the reasons for such an unusual phenomenon as the mass flight of a very significant part of the whole people to Turkey, one must also take into account the special relations that have developed between the Crimean Tatars and Turkey. For three centuries, the Crimean Khanate was a vassal of Turkey and the Turkish sultan was considered the supreme lord of the Crimea. As a result of the Tatar emigration in Crimea, 687 villages were partially or completely depopulated. The number of the rural population of Crimea sharply decreased: in 1853 it was 225.6 thousand, and in 1865 – 112 thousand people. Emigration of the Tatars to Turkey took place during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878. and in the following decades. For example, in the early 90’s. XIX century. about 30 thousand Tatars left the Crimea. At the beginning of the XX century. there is a new wave of emigration, but we do not have exact data on the numbers of those who left for Turkey. In 1917, the Tatars were only 36.6% of the rural population and only 11.3% of the urban population of the Crimea.
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